1. Alexandria:

Located on the Mediterranean coast, Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a significant economic, cultural, and educational center. It was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC and served as the capital of Egypt during the Ptolemaic period. Today, Alexandria is known for its rich history and cultural heritage, as well as its strategic location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The city is home to several museums, libraries, universities, and research centers, making it a hub of knowledge and learning in Egypt. Alexandria's most famous landmarks include the ancient Library of Alexandria, the Citadel of Qaitbay, and the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa.

2. Port Said:

Situated at the northern entrance of the Suez Canal, Port Said is a major seaport and an important transportation hub for both cargo and passenger ships. The city is named after its founder, Said Pasha, who oversaw the construction of the Suez Canal in the late 19th century. Port Said is known for its vibrant mix of cultures, as it has been a melting pot of Arab, European, and African influences for centuries. The city is also known for its beautiful architecture, including the iconic Port Said Lighthouse, and its bustling markets and commercial districts.

3. Suez:

Located at the southern entrance of the Suez Canal, Suez is another important seaport and transportation hub in Egypt. It is named after the ancient Egyptian god, Sopdu, who was worshipped as the god of the eastern border in the Old Kingdom. Suez is an industrial center, with several factories and processing plants, and a popular destination for tourists who want to explore the nearby historic sites and natural attractions. The city's most famous landmarks include the Suez Canal Authority Building, the Suez War Memorial, and the Suez Canal Museum.

4. Hurghada:

Situated on the Red Sea coast, Hurghada is a popular tourist destination known for its beautiful beaches, clear waters, and vibrant marine life. It is named after a local plant, known as "hurghada" in Arabic, which is said to have healing properties. Hurghada is also a hub for water sports and diving activities, with several dive centers and underwater reefs that attract enthusiasts from all over the world. The city's most famous landmarks include the Red Sea Aquarium, the Hurghada Marina, and the El Gouna Beach.

5. Sharm El Sheikh:

Located on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, Sharm El-Sheikh is another popular tourist destination known for its luxurious resorts, world-class diving sites, and stunning natural beauty. It is named after the local Bedouin tribe, who used to live in the area before the construction of the tourist resorts. Sharm El-Sheikh is also a popular destination for conferences and events, with several convention centers and meeting facilities. The city's most famous landmarks include the Ras Mohammed National Park, the Naama Bay Beach, and the Sharm El-Sheikh International Airport.

Overall, these coastal cities play a vital role in Egypt's economy, culture, and tourism industry, and are important gateways to the rest of the world. Each city has its unique history, culture, and natural beauty, making it a must-visit destination for anyone interested in exploring Egypt's diverse landscape and rich heritage.